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The LLVM Project is a collection of modular and reusable compiler and toolchain technologies. Despite its name, LLVM has little to do with traditional virtual machines, though it does provide helpful libraries that can be used to build them. The name "LLVM" itself is not an acronym; it is the full name of the project.
Clang is an "LLVM native" C/C++/Objective-C compiler, which aims to deliver amazingly fast compiles (e.g. about 3x faster than GCC when compiling Objective-C code in a debug configuration), extremely useful error and warning messages and to provide a platform for building great source level tools. The Clang Static Analyzer is a tool that automatically finds bugs in your code, and is a great example of the sort of tool that can be built using the Clang frontend as a library to parse C/C++ code.
The LLVM+Clang in this package fully supports the iOS 6.1 SDK (SDK not included). You will need ld64 and CC Tools (both provided separately). To use this with theos, you'll need to edit the Darwin-arm platform to use clang and clang++ instead of gcc and g++. This may sit alongside saurik's GCC and shouldn't cause any issues.
Files install to /usr/share
This is a developer package; no new icons are added to the homescreen. Tools are accessible from the command-line or remote terminal.